1971 Census Appendix 34

Goldthorpe Classes 1970


70 = scores using the 1970 Classification of Occupations derived for 1971 Census data


This is a 7-category class schema based upon the 36 categories of the Hope-Goldthorpe scale. The class schema was devised for men, but is widely used for both men and women.

The seven categories used with the 1971 data should contain members who are comparable "in terms of their sources and levels of income and other conditions of employment, in their degree of economic security and in their chances of economic advancement; and, on the other hand, in their location within the systems of authority and control governing the processes of production in which they are engaged....." (Goldthorpe, 1987, p 40).

Where LS data for either occupation or employment status was not available the value of 0 has been allocated.

The original categories are:

Social Class  CodeMeaning

Class I


Higher grade professionals, self-employed or salaried; higher grade administrators and officials in central and local government and in public and private enterprises; managers in large industrial establishments; and large proprietors.

Class II


Lower grade professionals and higher grade technicians; lower grade administrators and officials; managers in small business and industrial establishments and in services; and supervisors of non-manual employees.

Class III


Routine non-manual (largely clerical) employees in administration and commerce; sales personnel; and other rank and file employees in services.

Class IV


Small proprietors, including farmers and small-holders; self-employed artisans; and all other 'own account' workers apart from professionals.

Class V


Lower grade technicians whose work is to some extent of a manual character, foremen and some skilled manual.

Class VI


Skilled manual wage-workers in all branches of industry.

Class VII


All manual wage-workers in industry in semi and unskilled grades; and agricultural workers.




The Cambridge score is a measure of similarity of life-style and therefore of generalised advantage/disadvantage. There are two key references: A. Stuart, K. Prandy and R. Blackburn (1980)Social Stratification and Occupations London: Macmillan and K. Prandy (1990) 'The Revised Cambridge Scale of Occupations' Sociology, Vol.24, No.4 pp.629-655. Further information is also available at http://www.sps.cam.ac.uk/CAMSIS/review.html

There are two scores for each occupational group, one for men and one for women. This rests on the assumption that, for example, a female wages clerk is in a different 'occupation' from a male wages clerk. Men and women in the same occupational category do not necessarily occupy the same position in the structure of social advantage/disadvantage.

The occupational groups are combinations of occupation and employment status. It is, strictly, an ordered interval scale, but can be treated for all practical purposes as a continuous, interval level scale. Scores are given to two decimal places, with 4-digits in all; the ranges are 0.01 - 99.99.

Low values represent disadvantage and vice versa.

Where there is no code available for the particular combination of occupation and employment status, the value on the Cambridge score is 00.00. Where LS data for either occupation or employment status was not available, the field is left blank.

In assigning scores to combinations of occupation and employment status a look up table is used which, for 1971 variables uses the 1970 OPCS Occupational Unit Groups, with a range of 1-223. (See 1971 Census Appendix 5).

For each occupation seven categories of employment status are distinguished:


Employer, large establishment.


Employer, small establishment.




Manager, large establishment.


Manager, small establishment.






Hope-Goldthorpe scores




LS = LS member;
M = Mother of LS member;
F = Father of LS member;
SP = spouse of LS member


The variables apply to 1971 Census data only. Scores are not available for occupations coded to the 1980 classification of occupations. The original work to create the Hope-Goldthorpe scores used data for men only. The scores are commonly used for both men and women. Employment status and Occupational Unit Group are used to derive the variable which has a range from 17.52 to 82.05. The 36 categories into which these scores can be collapsed are listed in the LS User Manual, pp.281-283. Where LS data for either occupation or employment status was not available the value of 0 has been allocated.