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The 2001 census

The 2001 Census form contains a more detailed question on ethnicity and a new question on religion.

Ethnicity in 2001

The ethnicity question "What is your ethnic group?" (Q.8) contains 16 tick boxes with five write-in boxes, separated into five sections, and you were asked to choose the most appropriate box (see the 2001 Census form in 573K PDF or 87K HTML). A new Mixed group is included in 2001, and the White category is split into British, Irish or Other White. The LS contains two variables, ETHGRP0 (Ethnic group 2001) and ETHP0 (Ethnicity 2001). ETHGRP0 uses the 16 category classification used on the census form. ETHP0 combines the information form the tick boxes and the write-in boxes in the ethnicity question. Values in the 2001 Census that were missing or inconsistent have been imputed. Imputed values have been flagged in the LS. The proportion of values for ethnic group that were imputed in the 2001 Census was 2.91%.

The numbers of people in each ethnic group in the LS at 2001 are shown below:

Ethnic group at 2001 Census (Traced LS members)

  Male Female Total
White
234741
252227
486968
White British
226090
241732
467822
White Irish
2888
3423
6311
Other White
5763
7072
12835
Mixed
3170
3372
6542
White and Black Caribbean
1131
1253
2384
White and Black African
364
416
780
White and Asian
940
942
1882
Other Mixed
735
761
1496
Asian or Asian British
13373
13347
26720
Indian
6101
6386
12487
Pakistani
4257
4093
8350
Bangladeshi
1560
1717
3277
Other Asian
1455
1151
2606
Black or Black British
4556
5200
9756
Black Caribbean
2225
2612
4837
Black African
1883
2110
3993
Other Black
448
478
926
Chinese or Other Ethnic Group
2028
2359
4387
Chinese
1077
1136
2213
Other Ethnic Group
951
1223
2174
All People
257868
276505
534373

Source: 2001 LS sampling fractions by ethnic group for traced LS members (Tables S01.6)

Religion

The religion question "What is your religion?" (Q.10) was voluntary in England and Wales. There are seven tick boxes with a write-in box for "Any other religion". The LS variable is RELP0 (Practising religion 2001). No values were imputed for the religion question, and so there is a "not stated" category.

The numbers of people for each religion in the nine standard census categories in the LS at 2001 are shown below:

Religion at 2001 Census (Traced LS members)

  Male Female Total
Christian 178371 206091 384462
Buddhist 729 757 1486
Hindu 3171 3080 6251
Jewish 1240 1392 2632
Muslim 8999 8587 17586
Sikh 2251 2363 4614
All Other Religions 707 794 1501
No Religion 42565 33528 76093
Religion Not Stated 19835 19913 39748
Total 257868 276505 534373

Source: 2001 LS sampling fractions by religion for traced LS members (Tables S01.5)

Linkage rates

Forward linkage rates show the proportion of people at one census who are present at a subsequent Census, taking into account deaths and embarkations. People from minority ethnic groups present at the 1991 Census are less likely to be present at the 2001 Census. The forward linkage rate for the White group is 89.1%, but is only 73.7% for minority ethnic groups. Some groups have rates of less than 70%; Black Africans have a rate of 61.5%; Black Caribbeans 69.3%; and Other Asian 67.9%. Linkage rates by ethnic group and sex have been produced by ONS (see Table L9101.7 in the ONS document "Quality of linkage between the 1991 and 2001 Censuses").

Consistency of ethnicity groups between 1991 and 2001

Comparing ethnicity at 1991 and at 2001 is not straightforward because of the introduction of the Mixed category in 2001. Work is currently being carried out to find the most appropriate transition matrix for ethnicity at 1991 and 2001.