Hakim C. A century of change in occupational segregation 1891-1991. Journal of Historical Sociology 1994; 7 (December): 435-454

Data from the Population Censuses for 1891 and 1991 are analysed to assess long term trends in the degree and pattern of occupational segregation. Two competing theories are addressed: that occupational segregation is linked to levels of female employment, and that occupational segregation was prompted in the nineteenth century by a concern to control sexuality and fertility behaviour. Sociologists have overlooked the impact of social factors outside the labour force on developments within the workforce.