Leclerc A, Lert F, Fabien C. Differential mortality: some comparisons between England and Wales, Finland and France, based on inequality measures. International Journal of Epidemiology 1990; 19 (4): 1001-1010.
Inequalities in mortality between social classes or socioeconomic groups were compared in three European countries, using similar sources of data from large national cohort studies. People registered at a census in 1971 (1975 for France) or a sample of them, were followed until 1980 or 1981.
The Gini coefficient, a measure widely used in economics, allowed the comparison of various situations involving different numbers and group sizes. It was applied to age groups 35-44, and 45-54 for men only.
According to this measure, inequalities were of the same order in England and Wales and Finland, and greater in France. Differences between the three countries concerning the principal causes of death leading to inequalities were cardiovascular diseases in England and Wales, accidents and cardiovascular diseases in Finland, and cancer and cirrhosis in France.