Mitchell R, Gleave S, Bartley M, Wiggins R, Joshi H. Do attitude and area influence health?. Health and Place 2000; 6 (2): 67-79

This paper demonstrates an area effect on health and suggests improvements in research practice for work in this field. We use an area classification which can be related clearly to factors that influence the health of individuals and take account of people's differing propensities to draw influence from their area. Multilevel analysis demonstrates that the degree of deindustrialisation which an area experienced in Britain, in the 1980s, has an independent association with the health of resident individuals. A significant relationship between a person's attitude to their community and their health is shown to be independent of individual and area characteristics. We conclude that both individual and area characteristics influence health.